The effects of performance enhancing drugs

Athletes may abuse drugs to enhance or improve athletic performance, cope with stressor deal with other career challenges.

The effects of performance enhancing drugs

The effects of performance enhancing drugs

Athletes often seek every available opportunity to gain a competitive edge. With so much pressure placed on winning, shortcuts like performance-enhancing drugs begin to look appealing, despite their potentially fatal consequences.

Performance-enhancing drugs are thought to gives athletes an edge in competition, but do so with adverse health effects in the long-run.

Types of Drugs That Athletes Use

Many of these substances cause cardiovascular conditions, organ damage, tumors, and endocrine effects, all of which do more harm to the athlete than good. We broke down the effects of substances such as anabolic agents, peptide hormones, beta-2 antagonists, diuretics, stimulants, and narcotics on the body to explore how performance-enhancing drugs may actually impede performance.

Anabolic agents such as testosterone promote muscle growth in the body. Post-steroid withdrawal can result in depression and, in some cases, suicidal ideation. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin EPO control the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen.

EPO doping essentially thickens the blood — its use without close medical supervision can lead to an increased risk of blood clots and strokes. Stimulants and narcotics can also cause other psychological effects.

Stimulants, such as caffeine, amphetamines, and methamphetamineare used to trigger responses that allow the body and mind to perform with elevated levels of focus and energy.

This increase in energy can lead to nervousness and irritability. Furthermore, stimulants in the amphetamine family can have numerous pathological cardiovascular effects.

What are the side effects of anabolic steroid misuse? | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Steroids contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease partly by increasing the level of low-density lipoprotein LDL 47 and decreasing the level of high-density lipoprotein HDL.
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How Our Helpline Works The bottom line Most serious athletes will tell you that the competitive drive to win can be fierce. Besides the satisfaction of personal accomplishment, athletes often pursue dreams of winning a medal for their country or securing a spot on a professional team.
Effects of Performance Enhancing Drugs | Effects of Performance-Enhancing Drugs Many athletes pursue their dreams of winning medals or becoming part of a professional lineup. Aside from intense practice, some may even resort to using performance-enhancing drugs to gain an unfair advantage over their opponents.

Certain substances also produce a false sense of invincibility, which can lead to further injury. They stimulate growth as well as cell production and regeneration, and they are often used in a medical setting to aid those born prematurely. An excess of hGH can lead to the development of pituitary adenomaa slow-growing tumor arising from cells in the pituitary gland.

A large pituitary adenoma can cause loss of vision when the tumor grows upward in the brain cavity and compresses the optic chiasm. Blurry vision can also occur if the tumor grows forward and suppresses an optic nerve.

Pituitary tumors and subsequent vision loss are serious side effects of misusing hGH.

Performance-enhancing drugs: Know the risks - Mayo Clinic

These represent a startling extreme of the unexpected health ramifications that abuse of performance enhancers can have. In many cases, the injury that we do to ourselves with substance abuse—performance enhancers or otherwise—follows a more indolent course or, at least, is less apparent to the user.

The effects of performance enhancing drugs

The Effects of Performance-Enhancing Drugs on Hair While anabolic agents such as testosterone promote muscle growth, they also have endocrine effects. Testosterone is the main hormone in humans that produces male primary and secondary sex characteristics, like vocal cords, testicles, and body hair.

An increase in testosterone in women can lead to an increase in these male characteristics, particularly hair growth on the face, stomach, and upper back. Anabolic agents can also exaggerate male pattern baldness — in both males and females! The scalp has a high amount of androgen receptors, and male pattern baldness can be linked to anabolic agents binding to these receptors.

Genetic factors can also increase susceptibility in certain individuals. The Effects of Performance-Enhancing Drugs on the Heart Peptide hormones such as EPO increase the red blood cell count, which raises the percentage of the blood composed of red blood cells.

Side effects of this include the thickening of the bloodwhich requires the heart to pump harder and can lead to a heart attack. Stimulants can also cause an increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

Beta-2 antagonists, drugs used to treat respiratory ailments that have effects similar to stimulants, can cause heart palpitations. Misuse of hGH can also lead to high blood pressure and, in some cases, heart failure.

Narcotics, on the other hand, can decrease the heart rate, and diuretics — drugs that expel water from the body, often used by athletes who need to meet certain weight restrictions — can cause a drop in blood pressure. The Effects of Performance-Enhancing Drugs on the Kidneys A prolonged excess of hGH can lead to a functional pituitary adenoma and, subsequently a condition called acromegaly — which can cause enlarged hands, feet, and other areas of the body.

This can additionally cause insulin resistance and, in some cases, Type 2 diabetes. When the body resists insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into cells — the body loses an important source of fuel. The steroids, because of modifications that make them more bioavailable and longer-lasting, are metabolized in the digestive system, meaning they go through the liver.

The anabolic agents can lead to a range of damage: This damage to the liver can be serious, although it is often reversible with cessation of the steroid.Performance-enhancing drug (PED) use by children and teenagers rose sharply in the past decade.

One study shows % of high school students admit anabolic steroid use; another finds 8% of girls and 12% of boys report using products to improve appearance, muscle mass, or strength. A variety of side effects can occur when anabolic steroids are misused, ranging from mild effects to ones that are harmful or even life-threatening.

Most are reversible if the user stops taking the drugs. However, others may be permanent or semi-permanent.

Anabolic Steroids - Abuse, Side Effects and Safety

Performance-enhancing drugs: Know the risks. On this page; Anabolic steroids; Androstenedione; Human growth hormone; Erythropoietin; Diuretics; Creatine; Stimulants; The bottom line; Most serious athletes will tell you that the competitive drive to win can be fierce.

Anabolic steroids are performance-enhancing agents and act by increasing lean muscle protein synthesis and body weight, without increasing fat mass. 3. What is the Extent of Illicit Anabolic Steroid Use in the U.S?

Most side effects can be reversed if the drugs are stopped, but some, such as a deepened voice in women may persist.

Anabolic steroids

The side effects of steroids can be explained by the excess androgen and anabolic drug levels present in the body. The use of steroids suppresses the naturally occurring testosterone in the body and, in males, may lead to a decrease in testicle size (atrophy), decreased sperm production, infertility, and baldness.

The Effects of Performance-Enhancing Drugs on an Athlete. Competitor Staff / August 2, Unfortunately, competitive running has been riddled with rampant performance-enhancing drug .

Performance-enhancing drugs: Know the risks - Mayo Clinic