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Waldorf education Waldorf education also known as Steiner or Steiner-Waldorf education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based upon the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy.
Learning is interdisciplinary, integrating practical, artistic, and conceptual elements. The approach emphasizes the role of the imagination in learning, developing thinking that includes a creative as well as an analytic component.
Schools and teachers are given considerable freedom to define curricula within collegial structures. Schools are normally self-administered by faculty; emphasis is placed upon giving individual teachers the freedom to develop creative methods.
Early childhood education occurs through imitation; teachers provide practical activities and a healthy environment. Steiner believed that young children should meet only goodness.
Secondary education seeks to develop the judgment, intellect, and practical idealism; the adolescent should meet truth. Democratic education Democratic education is a theory of learning and school governance in which students and staff participate freely and equally in a school democracy.
In a democratic school, there is typically shared decision-making among students and staff on matters concerning living, working, and learning together. Neill[ edit ] Main article: He wrote a number of books that now define much of contemporary democratic education philosophy.
He felt that deprivation of this sense of freedom during childhood, and the consequent unhappiness experienced by the repressed child, was responsible for many of the psychological disorders of adulthood.
Educational progressivism Educational progressivism is the belief that education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people.
Progressivistslike proponents of most educational theories, claim to rely on the best available scientific theories of learning. The two most influential works that stemmed from his research and study were The Child and the Curriculum and Democracy and Education We get the case of the child vs.
His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called " genetic epistemology ". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual.
According to Ernst von GlasersfeldJean Piaget is "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing. His books The Process of Education and Toward a Theory of Instruction are landmarks in conceptualizing learning and curriculum development.
He argued that any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development. This notion was an underpinning for his concept of the " spiral " helical curriculum which posited the idea that a curriculum should revisit basic ideas, building on them until the student had grasped the full formal concept.
He emphasized intuition as a neglected but essential feature of productive thinking. He felt that interest in the material being learned was the best stimulus for learning rather than external motivation such as grades.
Bruner developed the concept of discovery learning which promoted learning as a process of constructing new ideas based on current or past knowledge. Students are encouraged to discover facts and relationships and continually build on what they already know.
Unschooling Unschooling is a range of educational philosophies and practices centered on allowing children to learn through their natural life experiences, including child directed playgame play, household responsibilities, work experience, and social interactionrather than through a more traditional school curriculum.
Unschooling encourages exploration of activities led by the children themselves, facilitated by the adults. Unschooling differs from conventional schooling principally in the thesis that standard curricula and conventional grading methods, as well as other features of traditional schooling, are counterproductive to the goal of maximizing the education of each child.
John Holt educator In Holt published his first book, How Children Failasserting that the academic failure of schoolchildren was not despite the efforts of the schools, but actually because of the schools. Not surprisingly, How Children Fail ignited a firestorm of controversy.
Holt was catapulted into the American national consciousness to the extent that he made appearances on major TV talk shows, wrote book reviews for Life magazine, and was a guest on the To Tell The Truth TV game show.
Contemplative education[ edit ] Contemplative education focuses on bringing introspective practices such as mindfulness and yoga into curricular and pedagogical processes for diverse aims grounded in secular, spiritual, religious and post-secular perspectives.Section III - Philosophical Perspectives in Education Part 3.
Progressivism, and Reconstructionism. These educational philosophies focus heavily on WHAT we should teach, the curriculum aspect. Perennialism Each of the educational philosophies relates to one or more of the metaphysical world view philosophies.
What connections . The nature and metaphysical basis of harmonic and dissonant sounds. Octave theory as it relates to octaves of time, sound, and color. Relationship of harmonic intervals in light, sound, and color. Numerology and spiritual significance of numbers and numeric intervals.
Duality and the Cosmic Polarity. Basis of major and minor and common musical chords. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the essence of a thing. This includes questions of being, becoming, existence, and reality. The word "metaphysics" comes from the Greek words that literally mean "beyond nature".
"Nature" in this sense refers to . The Progressive Aspect is a site dedicated to progressive rock (and closely related genres) and includes latest Prog News, CD Reviews, Interviews, Concerts, Today sees the release of Metaphysical Attractions, the latest release from Scots based The John Irvine Band.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform. It is today largely synonymous with left-of-centre political ideology.
As a philosophy, it is based on the idea of progress. "Metaphysical Aspect In Progressivism" Essays and Research Papers Metaphysical Aspect In Progressivism Progressivism was an era that desired movement toward reform; it was not single instance but based on a series of advancements.
Progressivism probably does not have any one metaphysics, but perhaps it does require a few things out its metaphysics. However, it might be more efficient to say what couldn't be a metaphysics of progressivism. Any metaphysics that denied the rea. Metaphysical Aspect In Progressivism Progressivism was an era that desired movement toward reform; it was not single instance but based on a series of advancements. With a new urban-industrial American on deck came the socioeconomic challenges of every day life. Section III - Philosophical Perspectives in Education Part 4. Related Theories of Learning (Psychological Orientations) Related to both the metaphysical worldview philosophies and the educational philosophies are theories of learning that focus on how learning occurs, the psychological orientations. They provide structures for the instructional aspects of .