It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment.
But among the cheering images there are also shocking ones. These show the fate of women accused of "collaboration horizontale". In Europethe practice dated back to the dark ages, with the Visigoths.
During the middle ages, this mark of shame, denuding a woman of what was supposed to be her most seductive feature, was commonly a punishment for adultery. After French troops occupied the Rhineland inGerman women who had relations with them later suffered the same fate.
And during the second world war, the Nazi state issued orders that German women accused of sleeping with non-Aryans or foreign prisoners employed on farms should also be publicly punished in this way.
Also during the Spanish civil war, Falangists had shaved the heads of women from republican families, treating them as if they were prostitutes. Those on the extreme right had convinced themselves that the left believed in free love.
It may seem strange that head-shaving, essentially a rightwing phenomenon, should have become so widespread during the leftist liberation euphoria in France in But many of the tondeurs, the head-shavers, were not members of the resistance.
Quite a few had been petty collaborators themselves, and sought to divert attention from their own lack of resistance credentials. Yet resistance groups could also be merciless towards women. In Brittany it is said that a third of those civilians killed in reprisals were women.
And threats of head-shaving had been made in the resistance underground press since There was a strong element of vicarious eroticism among the tondeurs and their crowd, even though the punishment they were about to inflict symbolised the desexualisation of their victim.
This "ugly carnival" became the pattern soon after D-day. Once a city, town or village had been liberated by the allies or the resistance, the shearers would get to work.
In mid-June, on the market day following the capture of the town of Carentan, a dozen women were shorn publicly. In Cherbourg on 14 July, a truckload of young women, most of them teenagers, were driven through the streets.
In Villedieu, one of the victims was a woman who had simply been a cleaner in the local German military headquarters. Many French people as well as allied troops were sickened by the treatment meted out to these women accused of collaboration horizontale with German soldiers.
A large number of the victims were prostitutes who had simply plied their trade with Germans as well as Frenchmen, although in some areas it was accepted that their conduct was professional rather than political. Others were silly teenagers who had associated with German soldiers out of bravado or boredom.
In a number of cases, female schoolteachers who, living alone, had German soldiers billeted on them, were falsely denounced for having been a "mattress for the boches". Women accused of having had an abortion were also assumed to have consorted with Germans.
Many victims were young mothers, whose husbands were in German prisoner-of-war camps. During the war, they often had no means of support, and their only hope of obtaining food for themselves and their children was to accept a liaison with a German soldier. Jealousy masqueraded as moral outrage, because people envied the food and entertainment these women had received as a result of their conduct.
When Arletty, the great actor and star of the film Les Enfants du Paradis, died inshe received admiring obituaries that did not mention the rumour that she had her head shaved at the liberation.
These obituaries even passed over her controversial love affair with a Luftwaffe officer.
But letters to some newspapers revealed a lingering bitterness nearly 50 years later. After the humiliation of a public head-shaving, the tondues - the shorn women - were often paraded through the streets on the back of a lorry, occasionally to the sound of a drum as if it were a tumbril and France was reliving the revolution of Some were daubed with tar, some stripped half naked, some marked with swastikas in paint or lipstick.
They were in tears, hanging their heads in shame.The Real History of the Crusades. The crusades are quite possibly the most misunderstood event in European history.
Most of what passes for public knowledge about it . Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends. Here's my full essay for the 'positive or negative development' question that we've been looking at over the last few weeks.
In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone nowadays than in the past.
Do you think this is a positive or negative development? In recent years it has become far more normal for people to live alone, particularly in large cities in the developed world.
Living in the Material World is the fourth studio album by English musician George Harrison, released in on Apple regardbouddhiste.com the follow-up to 's critically acclaimed All Things Must Pass and his pioneering charity project, the Concert for Bangladesh, it was among the most highly anticipated releases of that regardbouddhiste.com album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of.
Essay on Women Empowerment In India.
This is the article by Prof. V.P. Gupta, Director, Rau’s IAS Study Circle, New Delhi. Women Empowerment itself elaborates that Social Rights, Political Rights, Economic stability, judicial strength and all other rights should be also equal to regardbouddhiste.com should be no discrimination between men and .
The shortest path to oneself leads around the world: Living abroad increases self-concept clarity.
Here are the sections you will find: Section 1: What I'll be discussing in this how-to essay; Section 2: Understand who or what you're hiding from. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Oct 02, · “It helps sometimes to be a little deaf” is wise counsel for marriage or for the Supreme Court.