Planning, delivering, and assessing content-specific instruction; academic and common core standards; identifying specific standards that require literacy strategies. Concurrent enrollment in EHD B. Seminar to accompany final student teaching that provides opportunities for candidates to investigate and discuss variety of topics and strategies and to reflect on issues that surface during their student teaching experience. Supervised teaching in single subject classroom; assignment is for the full day; five days per week.
UK Kennel Club reports compliance rate was 0. Effectiveness of SM breeding guidelines, and current statistics. In an October report [December hard-copy publication] of the effectiveness of the SM breeding recommendations and their current statistical results of following that SM protocol, the researchers, Dr.
Rusbridge, Penny Knowler, and A. The study suggested that SM-free offspring were more likely if both parents were SM-free and SM-affected offspring were more likely if both parents had SM. Often, the true SM status may not be known until after the dog is used for breeding.
Of these, 33 per cent had a sire aged younger than 2. This is likely to be an overestimation of the proportion of SM-free dogs since these figures include C grade offspring, which may develop SM as they become older.
However, it could be argued that a recommendation to include at least one A grade dog in any proposed mating is a reasonable, practical alternative since it allows breeders to use their younger dogs. However, a far better proposal for prevention of SM and maintaining genetic diversity is a proposed mate select programme using estimated breeding values EBV.
This was because there were only a few A grade dogs identified when the breeding guidelines were first proposed and overuse of these might limit genetic diversity, reducing the effective population size. Moreover, where these offspring had siblings, the ratio of SM-free to SM-affected was 1: It is debatable whether it is ethical to knowingly breed a dog with an inherited disease especially when the majority of the offspring may be destined for the pet-owning public, and this study suggested that it is not advisable to use SM-affected dogs for breeding.
However, if the prevalence of SM is as high as 70 per cent in the CKCS Parker and othersthis will have dire consequences for the effective population size of the breed.
Again it is hoped that using an EBV mate select programme may allow safer parental crosses, maintaining genetic diversity while decreasing the number of SM-affected offspring. However, in some cases it was suspected, due to the size of the syrinx, that if the dog had been scanned when younger then the syrinx would have been apparent, in other words, the dog was actually an E grade.
Since the aim of the guidelines is to reduce the incidence of early onset and clinical SM, a future recommendation is that a D status or equivalent will only be appropriate if the dog was first proved by MRI to be SM-free before 2. One encouraging observation was that the proportion of grade E SM-affected younger than 2.
The following modifications are suggested but it should be realised that these are the recommendations that are based on limited data and consequently should be subjected to further prospective vigorous study: In ideal circumstances, both parents would be SM-free.
According to the study by Parker and othersthe optimum age for this early MRI screening is 36 months. SM has a complex inheritance and an EBV mate select programme should allow breeders to select safer breeding combinations. Consequently, all breeding dogs from breeds susceptible to CM and SM should be MRI screened and these results should be submitted to a central source.
In an October interim report of the statistical results of following the SM protocol, Dr. Rusbridge provided these interim statistics: As their research has progressed and their knowledge of the disease has increased, they have modified their earlier recommendations.
To best understand the terminology which they use, the reader first should read Syringomyelia In Depth. All Cavalier fanciers should be deeply indebted to these SM researchers and their counterparts worldwide for the effort they have put into assisting CKCS breeders in taking measures to reduce the incidence of SM in future generations of the breed.
Of course, it is completely up to the breeders as to whether they will pay any attention at all to these guidelines. August by Dr. Clare Rusbridge and Susan P. The late onset of clinical signs and the number of asymptomatic dogs adds to the complexity of the disease.
Not enough is known about long term progression to ascertain the optimum age young dogs should be screened for the disease. Recent studies suggest that in the vast majority of cases, the syrinx starts in the upper cervical spinal cord, so if this is included, then MRI scanning of the entire spinal cord more expensive may not ultimately be necessary.
The following breeding recommendations are made using current information and in response to breeder requests for guidelines. It has yet to be proven if this guide is appropriate.
The aim of these recommendations is to reduce the incidence of symptomatic syringomyelia in the breed -- not to create litters of puppies guaranteed not to have SM -- as the chance of producing an affected dog cannot be predicted without knowing the inheritance.
It is recommended that the offspring of any mating is also MRI screened before breeding.A proposed system for automated grading Based on my observations from reviewing the above software systems and from my own experience, I have defined a process and the functional expectations of a software system that supports TDD and automated grading.
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