The effects of low job satisfaction can be far-reaching and this issue is of concern for small business owners as well as large companies. If employees are not happy with their jobs, several areas of their work are affected and their behavior can also affect other employees. A study published by the "International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health" found that workers who report low job satisfaction experienced several other issues at work as a side effect.
The more a person is required to use a wide variety of skills, the more satisfying the job is likely to be. Task identity — This dimension measures the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
Employees who are involved in an activity from start to finish are usually more satisfied. Task significance — This looks at the impact and influence of a job. Jobs are more satisfying if people believe that they make a difference, and are adding real value to colleagues, the organization, or the larger community.
Autonomy — This describes the amount of individual choice and discretion involved in a job. More autonomy leads to more satisfaction.
For instance, a job is likely to be more satisfying if people are involved in making decisions, instead of simply being told what to do. Feedback — This dimension measures the amount of information an employee receives about his or her performance, and the extent to which he or she can see the impact of the work.
The more people are told about their performance, the more interested they will be in doing a good job. So, sharing production figures, customer satisfaction scores etc. Critical psychological states[ edit ] The five core job dimensions listed above result in three different psychological states.
Experienced meaningfulness of the work: The extent to which people believe that their job is meaningful, and that their work is valued and appreciated comes from core dimensions Experienced responsibility for the outcomes of work: The extent to which people feel accountable for the results of their work, and for the outcomes they have produced comes from core dimension 4.
Knowledge of the actual results of the work activity: The extent to which people know how well they are doing comes from core dimension 5. Techniques of job design[ edit ] See also: Job rotation Job rotation is a job design method which is able to enhance motivation, develop workers' outlook, increase productivity, improve the organization's performance on various levels by its multi-skilled workers, and provides new opportunities to improve the attitude, thought, capabilities and skills of workers.
Job enlargement Hulin and Blood  define Job enlargement as the process of allowing individual workers to determine their own pace within limitsto serve as their own inspectors by giving them responsibility for quality control, to repair their own mistakes, to be responsible for their own machine set-up and repair, and to attain choice of method.
Frederick Herzberg  referred to the addition of interrelated tasks as 'horizontal job loading'.
Job enrichment has the same motivational advantages of job enlargement, however it has the added benefit of granting workers autonomy.
Frederick Herzberg  viewed job enrichment as 'vertical job loading' because it also includes tasks formerly performed by someone at a higher level where planning and control are involved. Scientific management Under scientific management people would be directed by reason and the problems of industrial unrest would be appropriately i.
This philosophy is oriented toward the maximum gains possible to employees. Managers would guarantee that their subordinates would have access to the maximum of economic gains by means of rationalized processes.
Organizations were portrayed as rationalized sites, designed and managed according to a rule of rationality imported from the world of technique.
The common elements in human relations theory are the beliefs that Performance can be improved by good human relations Managers should consult employees in matters that affect staff Leaders should be democratic rather than authoritarian Employees are motivated by social and psychological rewards and are not just "economic animals"  The work group plays an important part in influencing performance  See also: Sociotechnical systems Socio-technical systems aims on jointly optimizing the operation of the social and technical system; the good or service would then be efficiently produced and psychological needs of the workers fulfilled.Employee attitudes typically reflect the moral of the company.
In areas of customer service and sales, happy employees are extremely important because they represent the company to the public.
Management's Role. Managers can assess whether an employee's poor performance reflects an attitude problem or factors such as job satisfaction, an inability to handle work tasks, training needs, problems with the work environment or personal problems. Office employees spend a lot of their time inside a building, where the physical environments influence their well-being and directly influence their work performance and productivity.
This research aims to produce a model for employee retention conjoining it with other aspects of perceived attitudes viz. employee motivation, employee satisfaction, employee involvement and life interest and work compatibility etc.
To attain the aim of the research, the Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics model () was taken as the basic foundation.
Job satisfaction employee satisfaction is a measure of workers' contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.
On a cold day in February, a terrifying incident landed a Google X employee briefly in the hospital, and the reasons have infuriated some people.