Accordingly, as far as mothers with Down child are participating to intervention sessions, their GSI will reduce and their mental health will increase. Discussion The findings showed that problem-focused coping strategy training program has positive effect on the promotion of mental health and decrease of GSI and psychological symptoms phobia, depression, paranoid thoughts, psychosis, somatic complaints, interrelations sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, anxiety, and aggression in mothers of children with Down syndrome. This coincides with some studies 29 — It seems that the components of problem-focused coping strategy accepting responsibility and planned problem solving are considered as confronting coping through which an individual tries to reduce the threatening situation itself and this might lead to reinforce family relations.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
There have been some controversies regarding the role of psychological factors in the course of IBD. The purpose of this paper is to review that role. The possible mechanisms by which stress could be translated into IBD symptoms, including changes in motor, sensory and secretory gastrointestinal function, increase intestinal permeability, and changes in the immune system are, then reviewed.
The prevalence rate, the timing of onset, and the impact of anxiety and depression on health-related quality of life are then reviewed. Finally issues about illness behavior and the necessity of integrating psychological interventions with conventional treatment protocols are explained.
To date, there is no certain cure for IBD, and treatment is aimed at managing the inflammatory response during flares and maintaining remission with a focus on adhering to therapy [ 2 ].
The etiology of IBD is unknown, but genetic, immune, and environmental factors are each thought to play a role in its causation [ 134 ].
These factors interact together, so in a person who is predisposed genetically, environmental factors trigger immune dysfunction and bowel symptoms [ 5 ]. One of these environmental triggers may be psychological factors particularly psychological stress.
Historically, it was first in the s that gastroenterologists and psychiatrists suggested that emotional life events and experiences are likely related to exacerbation of intestinal symptoms [ 6 ].
At that time, IBD was considered as a psychosomatic disease, and its relation to stress and other psychological factors was thought so strong that researchers felt no need to use any control group in their studies. A few decades later, this finding was questioned mostly due to methodological weaknesses and uncontrolled studies published in this area.
For a while IBD was considered as an organic disease, and psychological influences were discounted as contributing to it.
But further anecdotal evidence and clinical observations indicated that stressful experiences could adversely affect the course of IBD. Indeed many review articles have now emphasized the relationship between stress and IBD [ 6 — 10 ], concluding that confusions and controversies in published reports were partly due to differences in definitions of stress e.
These trends have contributed to resolving controversies, and illuminating the role of psychological stress in IBD. Thus, while the role of stress in the onset of IBD has not been established, there is no doubt that stress is a triggering and exacerbating factor in relation to the course and symptoms of IBD [ 8101213 ].
Indeed it can be considered as one of the determinants of disease relapse [ 121415 ]. However, there are some discordant reports about a relation between stress and disease onset, like that of Li et al.
Possible Mechanisms of the Effects of Psychological Stress on Patients with IBD In the light of recent advances in psychobiological research, what are the mechanisms by which the course of IBD can be influenced by stress? Nonspecific Effects Many of the IBD symptoms experienced by patients may be due to stress-induced changes in gastrointestinal GI function.
There is a richly innervated nerve plexus between the enteric nervous system ENS and its spinal and autonomic connections to the central nervous system, known as the brain-gut axis. GI motor, sensory and secretory function as well as thresholds for the perception of pain [ 13 ], can be affected by psychological and emotional stress directly or indirectly through this axis.
These effects are mediated by substance P SPvasoactive intestinal protein VIP [ 18 ], several neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones [ 1219 ].
Stress stimulates the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor CRF either from central or peripheral parts of CNS hypothalamus and adrenal cortex, resp. Endogenous CRF mediates the stress-induced inhibition of the upper GI tract motility and stimulation of colonic motility [ 1220 ].
Thus when symptoms such as abdominal pain and change in bowel function occur in IBD without significant disease activity, they may be attributed, at least in some instances, to alterations in motor and sensory function as a result of psychological stress. Intestinal Permeability Psychological stress can also increase intestinal permeability, probably as a result of alterations in the cholinergic nervous system and mucosal mast cell function [ 21 ].
This increased permeability in turn reduces mucosal barrier function and alters bacteria-host interaction [ 1223 ]. However, based mainly on animal studies, these observations are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of human IBD.
Immunological Mechanisms Finally, stress is also likely to mediate its effect on IBD through the immune system [ 1519 ]. On the one hand, it is believed that an inadequately controlled response within the intestinal mucosa leads to inflammation in patients who are genetically predisposed to IBD.
Dysfunction of the intestinal immune system and cross-reactivity of its cells against host epithelial cells have been implicated as major mechanisms by which the inflammatory response occurs [ 5 ].Risks Factors for Poor Mental Health Wellness.
There are factors that can place an individual at risk for poor mental health. Individuals that utilize negative coping skills are less able to deal with stress.
UNDERSTANDING AND COPING WITH ACHROMATOPSIA by Frances Futterman Second Edition A Publication for The Achromatopsia Network P.O. Box Berkeley, CA USA.
The American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychologists in the United States.
APA educates the public about psychology, behavioral science and mental health; promotes psychological science and practice; fosters the education and training of psychological scientists, practitioners and educators; advocates for psychological.
Positive thinking — Harness the power of optimism to help with stress management. Emotional and Psychological Trauma Healing from Trauma and Moving On. If you’ve experienced an extremely stressful or disturbing event that’s left you feeling helpless and emotionally out of control, you may have been traumatized.
Coping with Psychiatric and Psychological Testimony: Medicine & Health Science Books @ regardbouddhiste.com