Anyone who has been to an airport or endured yet another emergency-evacuation drill at work needs no reminder of how its effects endure. But then there are more subtle influences, the ones lodged just below the surface that shake loose at the slightest provocation.
Since September 11, We ask, are our senses being so retrained now that we cannot see the suffering of others or hear their cries?
We declare with anguish that whole populations are defined as nothing but targets for bombing. Despite repeated calls for invention of new vocabularies, my own sense is that we have yet to come to terms with the violence of the past and that we have allowed our scholarly terms to be defined in a manner that we are becoming trapped in, terms that are already given in the questions that we ask.
How 9/11 changed america essaysSeptember 11th is the most tragic event and unforgettable day to Americans. Nineteen hijackers seized four commercial U.S. jets and crashed them into American symbols of the military and capitalism and shook the entire nation. As soon as it was evident that the massive. Technology has drastically changed education since the beginning of the 21st century. Technological devices released over the last sixteen years have made learning more innovating for students and teaching more opportunistic for teachers. One of the most relevant changes since 9/11 is the creation of the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative (NSI), which encourages law enforcement agencies at the local, state, tribal and regional levels to share suspicious activity reports (SARs) with each other to .
After all, do we need to be reminded that the single-most important factor in the decline of the total number of wars since was the end of colonial wars? Or that in the s the region in which the highest death toll occurred was sub-Saharan Africa, and that it was the indirect death through disease and malnutrition that contributed to the enormity of the violence?
I use the collective first-person pronoun to include myself within this trap of not being quite able to define what the right questions should be.
I argued that in the political rhetoric that circulated right after September 11, with its talk of attacks on the values of civilization, the American nation was seen to embody universal values—hence the talk was not of many terrorisms with which several countries had lived for more than thirty years but of one grand terrorism, Islamic terrorism.
We might then ask, what other questions have been under discussion among different communities of scholars and how might debate be widened to take account of these discussions? One point I might put forward as a candidate for discussion is how affect is invested in some terms that come to be the signifiers of the pressing problems of a particular decade but then are dropped as if their force has been exhausted by new discoveries.
When these terms drop out of scholarly circulation, do they still have lives that are lived in other corners of the world or in the lives of individuals who continue to give them expression? As is well known, the term emerged in the summer of during the tragic events of the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the emergence of new nation-states that were making claims for international recognition.
Norman Naimark has made the point that ethnic cleansing happens in the shadow of war. As Naimark puts it: The goal is to remove every member of the targeted nation; very few exceptions to ethnic cleansing are allowed. In premodern cases of assaults of one people on another, those attacked could give up, change sides, convert, pay tribute, or join the attackers.
Ethnic cleansing, driven by the ideology of integral nationalism and the military and technological power of the modern state, rarely forgives, makes exceptions, or allows people to slip through the cracks. Yet a concept that was said to be central to explaining major mass atrocities is now rarely encountered—except perhaps in international law discussions on the distinction between genocide and ethnic cleansing.
Are the kinds of mass atrocities that have occurred since September 11 not amenable to discussion under any of the earlier terms? Do subjectivities shift so quickly?
Are issues of intentionality as providing the criteria for distinguishing between genocide and ethnic cleansing already resolved? What kind of footing in the world do enunciations made on behalf of all sides in conflicts that draw on such concepts as human rights and human dignity have?
While one can understand why the media might have moved on to other stories, have we as scholars come to terms with why some concepts disappear from our vocabularies so quickly? Ethnic cleansing in the nineties was widely understood as the violence of the other just as terrorism now is understood as the violence that the other perpetrates.
September 11 and the subsequent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan then become events that need to be placed in the long history of warfare that has generated the concepts of social science—concepts that cannot be divested of their political plenitude even as we recognize that the technologies of war have changed considerably.
Are there other discussions on war that are not quite within the discursive fields that dominate the post—September 11 scenario and the notion of Islamic terrorism?
I find it salutary to think that other theoretical discussions are taking place that are outside this frame of reference. For instance, the prolonged civil war in Sri Lanka, in which both Sinhala soldiers and Tamil militants engaged in killing, has led to discussions on the relation between Buddhism and violence and whether there are strains of Buddhism, especially within the Mahayana school, that make room for the exercise of violence.
Interestingly, the issues here are not those of justifying warfare but rather of dealing with the anxieties about bad karma generated by the acts of violence. A sustained analysis of what enabled such developments as samurai Zen, or soldier Zen, to appear in Japan or how it is that Buddhism could find a home within kingdoms as diverse as the Indians, the Mongols, the Chinese, and the Thai deepens our understanding of violence and nonviolence precisely because it has the potential to change the angle of our vision.
This hope is not an expression of sheer nostalgia for non-Western concepts but a plea to cultivate some attentiveness to those discourses that are or could be part of the history of our disciplines. Scholarly discourse cannot simply mirror the ephemeral character of media stories—even when a particular kind of violence disappears, the institutions that were put in place for dealing with it continue to have lives of their own.
The braiding of what is new and what is enduring might then define how we come to pose questions that are not simply corollaries of the common sense of our times.
Her most recent books are Life and Words: The Moral Embedding of Economic Action ed. Naimark, Fires of Hatred: Harvard University Press, Jerryson and Mark Juergensmeyer, eds. Oxford University Press, Essay on The Impact of September 11th on America - The Western World is a constantly changing machine, steadily moving forward in technology, in quality of life, and in culture.
These changes are usually controlled and consistent. The terrorist attcks that occurred on . In the decade since the September 11, attacks—the deadliest terrorist attack on U.S. soil—the country has been mired in protracted wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Department of Homeland Security was established, and Osama bin Laden, the mastermind of the attacks, was killed.
"How Has The Interpretation Of Due Process Changed Since The September 11Th Attacks" Essays and Research Papers How has technology changed in the classroom over the years With the vast and rapid development of science and technology, Airport Security Changes since September Sep 12, · The September 11 attacks provided a new and seemingly urgent justification for further militarization of America's police departments: the need to protect the country from terrorism.
How Normal Has Changed Since September 11 - The terrorist attacks on September 11th affected more than the lives of those in the targeted cities.
Nearly every American has felt the rippling effect in both subtle and obvious ways. View this research paper on Changes in US Business Ethics Practices Since Sept 11 The incident of 9 11 made the world pass though many sad and undesirable Research Paper Changes in US Business Ethics Practices Since Sept 11 and 90,+ more .