Making or Breaking Profits by Just a Few Minutes A few minutes can make all the difference when it comes to getting the most value out of the eight petroleum refineries operated by the global energy company BP. BPwhich employs 75, people in 72 countries, extracts about 3. It falls to the company's downstream segment to decide which of these feedstocks—which vary widely in terms of quality, yield, and cost of extraction—should be used to manufacture which of the many different fuels, lubricants, and petrochemicals that a petroleum refinery can produce.
The red arrow indicates 'disjoint classes'.
First, the domain of w3cgeo: While one could interpret these properties as mapping to a geometryas GeoRSS Simple does, there isn't conclusive evidence that this is what was intended. Point is defined as a sub-class of w3cgeo: As a result, we have inconsistency in how w3cgeo: SpatialThing may be interpreted.
Geometry ; Because foaf: Person is defined as a sub-class of w3cgeo: SpatialThingsome other people find it natural to equate w3cgeo: Feature So in summary, it's safer to say that our Spatial Thing equates to geosparql: Featureand that it is not the same as w3cgeo: However, in some applications it is more useful to describe the variation of property values in space and time.
Such descriptions are formalized as coverages. Users of spatial information may employ both viewpoints. So what is a coverage? As defined by [ ISO ] it is simply a data structure that maps points in space and time to property values. For example, an aerial photograph can be thought of as a coverage that maps positions on the ground to colors.
A river gauge maps points in time to flow values. A weather forecast maps points in space and time to values of temperature, wind speed, humidity and so forth.
One way to think of a coverage is as a mathematical function, where data values are a function of coordinates in space and time.
You can see from the above paragraph that non-gridded data like a river gauge measurement can also be modelled as coverages. Nevertheless, you will often find a bias toward gridded data in discussions and software that concern coverages.
Although the definition above presents a coverage as a data structure, conceptually it still has spatial extent. For example, the distribution of rainfall measured by a weather radar can be thought of as a coverage — the spatial extent is defined by the limit of the weather radar's range.
Similarly, we might say in the hydrology example, where a river gauge measures flow values at regular sampling times, the spatial extent would be the monitoring point where the river gauge is positioned. We say that a coverage is really just a special type of Spatial Thing with some particular properties.
Spatial Things and coverages may be related in several ways: As the property value of a Spatial Thing whose value varies within the extent of that Spatial Thing; for example, the varying strength of mobile-network coverage throughout the UK.
The values of a common property for a distributed set of Spatial Things provide a discrete sampling of a coverage; for example, the measurement of soil moisture based at a set of sampling stations can be compiled to show the spatial variation of soil moisture across the region where the sampling stations are located.
A coverage can be defined using three main pieces of information: The domain of the coverage is the set of points in space and time for which we have data values. For example, in a river gauge measurement, the domain is the set of times at which the flow was measured. In a satellite image, the domain is the set of pixels.
In a weather forecast, the domain is a set of grid cells.The WHO Technical Report Series makes available the findings of various international groups of experts that provide WHO with the latest scientific and technical advice on a broad range of medical and public health subjects.
BP is a global energy company with wide reach across the world’s energy system. It provides customers with fuel for transport, energy for heat and light, lubricants to keep engines moving and the petrochemicals products used to make everyday items as diverse as paints, clothes and packaging.
WHO publications page with links to the library, bookshop and flagship publications. Introduction (BOC: Plan A-annual report-en) 28/03/ M28 HKEX E>C Bank of China is the Bank with the longest continuous operation among Chinese banks. Practice guidelines provide recommendations applicable to patients with or at risk of developing CVD.
The focus is on medical practice in the United States, but guidelines developed in collaboration with other organizations can have a global impact. Although guidelines may be used to inform.
Oil and gas digital transformation, a review What is it really? Why all the hype? Will it work? We look at transformation as seen by Honeywell, ABB, Siemens, Shell and Accenture to conclude that the putative ‘transformation’ is more driven by marketing than by business requirements.