Antique paper watermark

Additives Clay, fillers, dyes, sizing and other chemicals added to pulp to give the paper greater smoothness, color, fibered appearance or other desirable attributes. A measure of the amount of chlorine that is chemically bound to the soluble organic matter in the effluent. Aerated Lagoon A biological wastewater treatment method in which air oxygen fed into an aeration basin reduces the effluent load.

Antique paper watermark

Fine Paper Terminology

Cotton is one of the strongest and most durable natural fibers known to man. Papers manufactured from cotton fiber will last longer and hold up better under repeated handling and various environmental conditions than paper made from wood pulp. These rags were cleaned and then broken down into fibers, which were then used to manufacture paper.

In a sense it could be stated that the fine paper business has been engaged in recycling materials for production since its very beginning. Wood pulp is processed into sulphite, which is then used to manufacture various grades of paper.

It is more economical than cotton fiber however, it is also less durable and more acidic than cotton fiber. There are different grades of sulphite, depending upon how much processing has gone into making the pulp.

Processing includes breaking the fiber down to very fine pieces and bleaching the natural color out of the wood to attain a high level of whiteness. The very best grade of sulphite is known as a 1 sulphite.

Antique paper watermark

Southworth uses only 1 sulphite in the manufacturer of its fine business paper. This is particularly true as the percent of wood pulp in paper relative to the amount of cotton increases, since cotton fiber papers are less likely to disintegrate or yellow than papers made with all or part wood pulp.

All cotton fiber paper is sized at some point in the manufacturing process. Sizing is a starch. Cotton fiber is absorbent.

Antique paper watermark

Without sizing, when ink is applied to the surface of the sheet, it will bleed through the fibers causing a blurred look.

Size seals the fibers and helps control the degree of ink penetration into the paper. Sizing also contributes to the crisp, unique feel of cotton fiber papers. How the sizing is introduced to the paper will affect the finished characteristics of the sheet.

Sizing is typically introduced at one of three points during the manufacturing process: Sizing introduced at the wet end means that the sizing is added to the mix at the beginning of the manufacturing process so it is permeated throughout the sheet.

Paper Dictionary

This is desirable for economy and also for fine papers that will ultimately be used in high-speed copy machines and laser printers. In-line sizing means that the size is applied to the surface of the finished sheet in line after the paper has been manufactured but before it is dried and calendered.

Tub sizing is the most expensive process. The paper is first manufactured without sizing. Fine papers are manufactured in various weights, commonly 32, 24, 20, 16 and 9 also known as onionskin pound weights. If the paper has been manufactured to a pound specification, sheets of this uncut paper will weigh 20 pounds.

The most common paper weight today is 20 lb. While Southworth sells 20 lb. For paper that has a basis weight of 24 lb. The correct weight of a matching envelope for a paper of up to 20 lb.

For example, the proper envelope to use with 20 pound paper would be an envelope made from 24 pound stock. Onionskin is a very lightweight paper 9-pound that was used primarily for copies of an original typed document. Onionskin has traditionally been used for overseas airmail correspondence.

The metric system of measurement for paper is used primarily throughout the world, with notable exceptions being the United States, Canada and Mexico. A most commonly used size is A4, which measures mm x mm.Introductory Note This collection contains a manuscript notebook with the cover title "Old Paper Watermarks, E.E.

Thoyts, " Four items of notes related to watermarks are tipped into the volume, and an additional fourteen items of letters and notes, originally laid in, have been removed from the book.

DIY Paper Marigold flowers for Festive decoration

WATERMARK: The watermark is a sign of quality. It assures the user that the paper is a fine paper. The watermark generally will identify the manufacturer, the brand . (art detailed below to sell at 11 AM) ANTIQUES: antique wall cupboard, 5 tier barrister's bookcase with glass doors, harvest table, set 6 hoop backed chairs, kerosene parlour lamp, 6 drawer tiger maple dresser, corner sofa, wooden butter bowl, vintage and antique decoys, red wool blanket, 7 quilts, antique ribbon doll, antique fire fighter's helmet, Lakefield Police Dept.

coal oil lantern w. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Southworth Antique Laid Business Paper, Ivory, 32 Pounds, Count (JC) at Read .

These antique graphics are free to use for personal use. Please contact me for commercial use first.{Click on antique graphics images to view full size.}. Welcome to the IPH. The IPH integrates professionals of different branches and all friends of paper within the field of paper history.

It coordinates all interests and activities in paper history as an international specialist association co-operating with international, regional and local organisations not only of paper historians but also of keepers of archives and libraries, conservators.

DIY Paper Marigold flowers for Festive decoration -