The aim is to apply principles and concepts from a variety of social science disciplines e. Topics include how technology changes relationships, the cumulative advantages and disadvantages associated with technology, digital natives versus digital immigrants, the pace of technological change, changes to the nature of how people learn and think, and the meaning of technology in society. An introduction to the structure and function of living organisms. The objective is to use knowledge about biological principles and scientific reasoning to make informed decisions about the natural world.
Bibliography Definition Academic writing refers to a style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and their specific areas of expertise. Characteristics of academic writing include a academic writing styles examples tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective usuallya clear focus on the research problem under investigation, and precise word choice.
Like specialist languages adopted in other professions, such as, law or medicine, academic writing is designed to convey agreed meaning about complex ideas or concepts for a group of scholarly experts.
Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James.
Academic Writing and Publishing: Importance of Good Academic Writing The accepted form of academic writing in the social sciences can vary considerable depending on the methodological framework and the intended audience.
However, most college-level research papers require careful attention to the following stylistic elements: The Big Picture Unlike fiction or journalistic writing, the overall structure of academic writing is formal and logical.
It must be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas; this means that the various parts are connected to form a unified whole.
There should be narrative links between sentences and paragraphs so that the reader is able to follow your argument. The introduction should include a description of how the rest of the paper is organized and all sources are properly cited throughout the paper.
The Tone The overall tone refers to the attitude conveyed in a piece of writing. Throughout your paper, it is important that you present the arguments of others fairly and with an appropriate narrative tone.
When presenting a position or argument that you disagree with, describe this argument accurately and without loaded or biased language. In academic writing, the author is expected to investigate the research problem from an authoritative point of view.
You should, therefore, state the strengths of your arguments confidently, using language that is neutral, not confrontational or dismissive. Diction Diction refers to the choice of words you use.
Awareness of the words you use is important because words that have almost the same denotation [dictionary definition] can have very different connotations [implied meanings]. This is particularly true in academic writing because words and terminology can evolve a nuanced meaning that describes a particular idea, concept, or phenomenon derived from the epistemological culture of that discipline [e.
Therefore, use concrete words [not general] that convey a specific meaning. If this cannot be done without confusing the reader, then you need to explain what you mean within the context of how that word or phrase is used within a discipline.
The Language The investigation of research problems in the social sciences is often complex and multi- dimensional. Therefore, it is important that you use unambiguous language. Well-structured paragraphs and clear topic sentences enable a reader to follow your line of thinking without difficulty.
Your language should be concise, formal, and express precisely what you want it to mean. Do not use vague expressions that are not specific or precise enough for the reader to derive exact meaning ["they," "we," "people," "the organization," etc. Punctuation Scholars rely on precise words and language to establish the narrative tone of their work and, therefore, punctuation marks are used very deliberately.
For example, exclamation points are rarely used to express a heightened tone because it can come across as unsophisticated or over-excited.
Dashes should be limited to the insertion of an explanatory comment in a sentence, while hyphens should be limited to connecting prefixes to words [e. Finally, understand that semi-colons represent a pause that is longer than a comma, but shorter than a period in a sentence.
In general, there are four grammatical uses of semi-colons: If you are not confident about when to use semi-colons [and most of the time, they are not required for proper punctuation], rewrite using shorter sentences or revise the paragraph.
Academic Conventions Citing sources in the body of your paper and providing a list of references as either footnotes or endnotes is a very important aspect of academic writing.Persuasive. Persuasive writing is the main style of writing you will use in academic papers.
When an author writes in a persuasive style, they are trying to convince the audience of a position or belief. Information on all Essay Types, Stages of Writing, Common Essay Subjects, all Academic Levels and Formatting Styles. Writing tips, common mistakes and problems in writing.
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